are numerous research reports supporting the theory that alkaline
halide salts have the potential to aggravate (i.e., increase)
the expansion rate and, thus, the resultant damage to concrete
with alkali silica reaction (ASR). While halide-bearing salts
are generally avoided for airport use because of the corrosive
effect on metals, no significant investigation has been done to
determine if other alkaline deicers have a similar effect on ASR.
Such alkaline deicers are commonly used on airfield pavements,
including airfield pavements affected by ASR. A laboratory study
is required to either confirm or refute the hypothesis that ASR
can be accelerated by the use of deicing chemicals.
research program will be in the form of a two step solution. 1.
Identify if there is a problem. This effort will be a laboratory
exercise. 2. If there is a problem, what is the recommended path
for determining the probable mitigation methods? The actual work
effort to accomplish the second part will be described as a program
(a roadmap) for a future research project. The roadmap to finding
mitigation measures however, must be definitive based upon the
results of this research effort.
literature search will be accomplished. The purpose is to identify
the various chemicals that are currently marketed as well as
chemicals being considered for use in the airfield pavement
environment. The literature search will also determine if there
are any recent research reports that identify select chemicals
as accelerants of ASR.
laboratory study will include the testing of concretes that
are made with aggregates known to be reactive. The materials
used should represent combinations of materials usually used
in various regions of the United States.
research plan for this project will be designed to clearly show
whether or not alkaline deicers have significant potential to
increase expansion and damage of ASR-affected airfield pavements
final product will be an Innovative Pavement Research Foundation
(IPRF) report that provides the results of the laboratory investigation
and the literature search. The recommended path for determining
probable mitigation methods for the problem identified by the
research will be included in the final report. At the conclusion
of the research there should be a document(s) that the engineer
or constructor can read and through reading gain an understanding
of the problem and the potential for mitigating the problem.
final report will be provided to the IPRF in the form of two originals,
in a camera ready format, including any artwork, graphics or photos.
An electronic version of the final report in a format compatible
with off-the-shelf desktop computer publication software will
also be provided. The investigator will not be responsible for
the reproduction and printing of the final document(s) but will
assist with minor editing requirements generated by the printing
and reproduction process.
investigator is expected to develop sub-tasks that when completed
will result in completion of the project within the time and budget
available. It is not necessary that the proposal reflect the exact
budget or the planned time. However, any deviation from the designated
resources must be justified and clearly explained in the proposal.
The following are the minimum tasks that are considered necessary
to complete the project.
1 - Literature Review and Information Gathering.
Review existing literature. Provide a summary of any previous
research or reported problems with deicing chemicals used in
the airport environment.
Using the list of commercial airports provided by the IPRF,
develop a list of the deicing chemicals used on airfield pavements
by those airports.
A written survey will not be accomplished to determine
what deicing chemicals are used for airfield pavements. A survey
is defined as the random distribution of a standard list of questions
that seek trends or forecasting information. The use of such surveys
must receive approval through the IPRF from the Office of Management
and Budget (OMB). That process requires a minimum of 90 days from
the date of application for the survey approval. The 90 day approval
period is not included in the time designated as the performance
period. The investigator is encouraged to use a means other than
"survey" to identify airports that use deicing chemicals
and the chemicals are.
2 - Document a Research Plan. Develop a plan for doing the
research. The anticipated techniques and tests to be employed
in the laboratory will be straightforward. It is preferred that
the tests specified would have been used successfully in other
published research to investigate the effects on ASR by chemical
compounds. It is to be expected that some known rapidly reactive
aggregate species would need to be included in this program. Selected
specimens should include petrographic evaluation to investigate
and document the nature of deteriorations and expansions observed
as a result of the testing regimes. The submittal of the research
plan to the IPRF Technical Panel is designated as the 20% review
point of the research.
20% on-board review will be accomplished. The investigator
will not proceed to Task 3 without the written approval of the
IPRF. An on-board review must be scheduled at least 30 days
prior to the actual meeting. Documents that are prepared for
technical panel review must be provided at least 30 days prior
to the meeting. The location of the meeting will be coordinated
with the IPRF. The investigator is responsible for documenting
the comments of IPRF Technical Panel members and the disposition
of each comment.
3 -Collect Samples. Collect the chemicals and materials identified
in the test plan.
4 -Perform Laboratory Studies. Accomplish the laboratory studies
according to the research plan.
a part of the proposal, the researcher will designate the approximate
time after the laboratory study begins to report initial findings.
The summary of initial findings is defined as the 60% review point
of the research. The initial findings report will include the
summary of the literature search, the list of deicing chemicals
used usage at airports, observations of the initial laboratory
testing and the lessons learned from the studies through the date
of the report. The report should be prepared and submitted at
a time in the laboratory process that corrections to the test
plan or modifications of test protocols would be deemed appropriate.
60% on-board review will be accomplished. The review will
be a meeting between the investigator and the IPRF Technical
Panel. The initial findings report will be provided to the technical
panel at least 30 days prior to the meeting. The investigator
is expected to present to the technical panel discussion items
that will result in policy decisions for critical elements of
the final report. Additional research may be needed to respond
to questions that are developed as a result of the on-board
review. The location of the meeting will be coordinated with
the IPRF. The investigator is responsible for documenting the
comments of IPRF technical panel members and the disposition
of each comment.
5 - Advanced Final Report. When the laboratory study is completed,
make corrections using the 60% review, additional data gathered
as a result of the 60% review and the completion of the laboratory
testing. Include in the report all artwork, graphical presentations,
format, etc. The document shall be in a form that for all intent
is complete with the exception of final comments made by the Technical
Panel. The submittal of the advanced final report is designated
as the 90% review point of the research project.
90% on-board review will be accomplished. The advanced final
report will be submitted to the IPRF Technical Panel for review.
The Technical Panel will have 30-days to review and comment
on the report. The report will include a summary of the results
of testing and recommendations for the research plan that should
be followed for mitigation of problems that are discovered as
a result of the research. The investigator is responsible for
documenting the comments of IPRF Technical Panel members and
the disposition of each comment.
6 - Final Report. Make corrections to the 90% document and
submit the final documents to the IPRF. Assist the IPRF with publication
A final report (an IPRF Report), that includes recommendations
for the research and study of probable mitigating methods, with
all artwork, graphics, tables, pictures, documentation, etc.
ready for reproduction and distribution. The report will be
submitted in two original documents and one on electronic media.
A brief summary of the literature search, a list of chemicals
used for ice control on airfield pavements and a proposed research
plan. Submit 8 copies. This is defined as the 20% level
of completion. The products of the research to date will be
reviewed at an on-board meeting at a location to be determined.
The investigator will host the meeting. Location will be determined
in coordination with the IPRF.
The 60% on-board review will be accomplished approximately 30-days
after submittal of an interim report. The draft report (8
copies) will include a summary of all research completed
to date. The investigator will host the meeting. Location will
be determined in coordination with the IPRF.
Advanced final report submittal (8 copies) for 90% review.
Considerations and requirements.
investigator will be responsible for the preparation of quarterly
reports that describe the progress of the research effort. Reports
are due in the offices of the IPRF on the last day of the fiscal
year quarter. The reports will be limited to two pages in a format
specified by the IPRF. The first page will be a word document
describing the progress of the work. The second page will provide
a summary of the estimated costs versus the costs incurred to
the report date.
the technical panel completes the evaluation of proposals, each
of the proposals will be rank ordered. The organization, group,
or individual that is ranked as the first and second choice for
the recommendation to award may be asked to participate in a telephone
interview. The Principal Investigator, and one other person, representing
the entity ranked first and second choice by the technical panel
may be asked to participate in the interview to discuss the project
details, goals, and objectives. The interview will occur within
a 45-day window subsequent to the proposal submittal deadline.
preparing proposals are urged to review the following documents
to be sure that there is a full understanding of IPRF procedures
and requirements. Proposals must be prepared in the format specified
in the instruction documents. The proposal will be submitted as
one (1) original and 8 copies.
documents required as an aide to the preparation of the proposal
AVAILABLE: Not to Exceed $95,000
TIME: Not to exceed 21 Months
PROJECT DIRECTOR: Mr. David
Stokes, (704) 868-5492
ESTIMATED NOTICE TO PROCEED DATE: March 15, 2004
PROPOSAL DUE DATE: December 16, 2003 not later than 4:00 P.M.
will be delivered to:
Innovative Pavement Research Foundation
Cooperative Programs Office
1010 Massachusetts Ave., N.W., Suite 200
Washington DC 20001
FAX: (202) 842-2022
Attention: Research Proposal Log